Skip to main content

Full text of "Report of ... Austin Craig on a research trip to the United States, December 15th, 1914, to May 5th, 1915"

See other formats









(^u.^/tusK^es CAteAA&rt6 

Ururcvr»t6v- jrp ZJaifenMi' 


Department of History, Economics and Sociology. 

Report of 
Associate Professor Austin )Craig 

On a Research Trip to the United States, December 15th, 1914, 
^~ to May 5th, 1915. 



Department of History, Economics and Sociology. 

Report of 
Associate Professor Austin Craig 

On a Research Trip to the United States, December 15th, 1914* 

to May 5th, 1915, 


The Honorable, The Board of Regents (Through the Dean of the 
College of Liberal Arts and the President), University of the 

Gentlemen : — T have the honor, in reporting on my recent 
absence from the Philippines (December 15th, 1914, to May 5th, 
1915) under your leave, to broaden the report by allusion to some 
of the present possibilities for the History Department and with 
suggestions of how it is proposed to make the most of them. A 
copy for each member should save all encroachment upon the 
time of your meeting, while its printed form I hope may make this 
sizable communication less tiresome reading than one of half of 
its length submitted in typewriting. 


The courses planned to be covered by the students during the 
last semester were satisfactorily completed, though the change to 
giving a month's help at the start prevented that entire self-de- 
pendence which was originally contemplated. Compilations from 
the students' papers are to be made available for the teachers of 
the Archipelago through monthly installments published in the 
magazine "Philippine Education" throughout the coming year. 
Thus American history and civil government as seen through 
trained Filipino eyes can become the basis for public school in- 
struction in those branches which mean so much for popular 
government. Each series of articles is to appear under the names 
of the students who contributed toward its preparation, and the 
resulting pride for them and the spirit of emulation which will 
be aroused among other Filipino students perhaps may be con- 
sidered even of more importance than the mere knowledge gained. 


Especial care has been taken to guard against the evils which 
result from the exaltation of things foreign before the young. 
The artificial products of the earlier Europeanized schools in 
Japan, China, and India warn against allowing Filipinos to become 
educationally exotics, with all the weakness in character that im- 
plies in humans as much as among members of the vegetable king- 
dom. With this in mind both American history and American 

Civil Government are shown to have more reasons for their places 
in the course of study than the present political connection. 

In history, Columbus' discovery is pointed out to have given 
Spain's title to these Islands and their association with the Mexi- 
can viceroyalty during the beneficent portion of Spanish rule is 
dwelt upon. Also it is made clear how their sparse population 
in a region rich in resources places the Philippines among the 
lands of opportunity of the New World, with primary interests 
somewhat like those of North, Central and South America and 
Oceanica and having few problems in common with Europe and 

In Civics, the Laws of the Indies, from the Gothic Kingdom 
of Castile, are shown to be similar in spirit to the American Com- 
mon Law which, through England, came down from the Goths' 
kindred, the Anglo-Saxons. So the United States, instead of 
figuring as the metropolis of a colony, is studied as the pioneer 
in modern popular government and thus a proper examplar for a 
people of like democratic tendencies. 


Similar preparation has been made, and like publicity will 
be given to its results, in the study of the Philippines' neighbors. 
These are the lands just now being discussed in the popular Pan- 
Oriental movement, but there with less emphasis on the moral 
leadership which belongs to the only Christian country of the Far 
East. The biggest fact in Oriental History is that the Christian 
civilization which Japan welcomed little over half a century ago 
and which its leaders acquire in their higher education has been 
general for over three hundred years throughout the islands whose 
capital is Manila. What in the island empire to our north is but 
a veneer, an influence as yet exerted only by the schools, here is 
a part of the people's lives from infancy as it has been of a dozen 
generations of their ancestors before them. China tried Japanese 
teachers and discarded them because they were only imitation- 
Europeans, but the Filipinos' standards of judgment, incentives for 
action and ways of reasoning all make their own the learning 
of the Occident while their interests lie in the Orient, yet from here 
there are no covetous eyes cast upon neighboring lands. 

Doctor Rizal's theory was that the average Filipino stood in 
much the same relation to modern European civilization as does 
the peasant of Europe to its city culture. In his home he has no 
advanced associations hut whenever given the opportunity quiekly 
adapts himself to them. City boys and country boys in America 

nre somewhat similarly situated and from there conies the en- 
couraging experience that the greater ambition among those who 
started handicapped has caused an unusual proportion to achieve 

Until now Oriental history has been either written from the 
native side with such an intermixture of local myths as to dis- 
credit it and be confusing to the outsider, or has been presented 
from an European standpoint in which the people of the country 
were put in an unfair and unfavorable light. The United States, 
as a new nation, fortunately was not concerned in the early rela- 
tions which in a few years changed a part of the world hospitable 
to all strangers into a region where every foreigner was held an 

It needs only the true story of the Portuguese and Spanish 
pioneers to understand this attitude. Nor did England keep free 
from blame when she became the predominant power. America's 
refusal to countenance her citizens committing crimes against 
friendly Asiatic powers, as with opium, and Americans' loyalty to 
Oriental countries employing them are exceptional in the record 
of foreign intercourse with the Far East and so minimized by 
European writers. 

It follows thus that if the history of the Orient were written 
from the Oriental side, as Europeans have written their own his- 
tory, it would regard the forcible opening to trade of a hermit country 
as somewhat akin to the recent invasion of Belgium. The burden 
of proof would be on the invader to shoAv the benefit to the country 
from such action; and the benefit to Europe would cease to be the 
all-sufficient excuse which European writers seem to regard it. 
One here must have recourse to American writers and supplement 
their accounts by reference to oriental writings. 

If the Philippines, long the centre of European intercotirse, 
can pioneer in this work its production will be sure of a welcome 
in the neighboring countries and ought to contribute toward the 
educational leadership naturally belonging here. 


Two months of my 83-day stay in America, which happened to 
be my first visit in eleven years, was at Berkeley, across the bay 
from San Francisco. Doctor David P. Barrows, formerly Di- 
rector of Education, is Dean of the Faculties of the University 
of California, and, thanks to his interest, 1 had excellent oppor- 
tunity for work. Through the faculty privilege of drawing books 
it was possible not only to study beyond the usual library hours 

bat while I was looking tip references a stenographer whom I per- 
sonally employed was doing the longer copying. 

A Chinese scholar had just been added to the University facul- 
ty, and the chief books were at hand for Oriental research. Then 
their great library, besides files of European and Asiatic as well 
as American periodicals, has the Bancroft collection of material 
bearing on Spanish discoveries and the lands bordering the Pacific, 
and a manuscript index to documents in the Mexican government 

It had been my intention to go to the East, as my relatives 
lived in Minneapolis and Boston and both places offered material 
of interest, but the facilities in California were found so much 
fuller than my anticipation that I was loath to leave them till there 
remained only time for a hurried rush across the continent and 
back with six days' stop in the city of Washington. As I was twice 
in New York City and twice in Baltimore it will be apparent that 
my family visits dwindled till they could only be dignified as call;- 
en route, that in Boston being made by taking an evening fast 
train and returning by the first flier three hours later. Yet by 
sending letters ahead and getting friends to look up matters in 
advance it was possible to accomplish most of what I had planned, 
while in some lines the achievement very considerably exceeded 
earlier expectations. 

The Congressional Library catalogue of books and magazine 
references to the Philippines was used as a checklist by which the 
minor mentions were all looked up. It was a laborious task and 
the bulk of the matter was based on Avhat had been published 
before, so that relatively little neAv material was gotten. Yet this 
had to be done, and what was obtained was well worth the effort, 
I believe. Books dealing exclusively with the Philippines are am- 
ply supplied by the Filipiniana section of the Philippine Library, 
but magazine articles and incidental notices in books on other sub- 
jects are not available here. 

At the State Department in Washington I found corroboration 
of the visit of a Filipino representative to the Hongkong American 
Consulate in November, 1897, asking intervention. A request 
through official channels will be necessary to get a copy of the 
consular dispatch reporting this. The matter is important for 
establishing that the uprising culminating in the Pact of Biae na 
Bato had ambitious aims for the Philippines and became more than 
an ordinary insurrection. 

The quarantining of the transport on which 1 came made it 
impossible for me to look up in Guam, as 1 had intended, about 
the prisoners, who were deported there from Manila, March 14, 1872, 
on the barque Flores de Maria. The deportees were: 

Priests : 

Agustin Mendoza (of Sta. Cruz, Manila) 
Jose Guevarra (Quiapo) 
Miguel Laza (Cathedral, Manila) 
Feliciano Anacleto 

Desiderio f 

Vicente del Rosario 
Toribio del Pilar 
Mariano Sevilla 
Justo Guazon 
Pedro Dandan 

Attorneys : 

Antonio Ma. Regidor 
Joaquin Pardo de Tavera 
Maurieio de Leon 
Enrique Basa 
Pedro Carillo 
Gervasio Sanchez 

Merchants : 

Balbino Maurieio 
Jose Basa 
Pio Basa 
Maximo Paterno 
Ramon Maurente. 

However Governor Maxwell prominsed to give the matter his 
personal attention and I am confident this interesting event will 
soon be better known. 


The exhibits from here which I saw during the period of their 
installation naturally brought up two points about which, because 
of their close connection with my work, I had been led to offer sug- 
gestions in Manila. 

One had been in support of Doctor Robertson's objection to send- 
ing across the ocean the more valuable of the Philippine Library's 
treasures, and their photographs, which he substituted, made a show- 
ing beyond what the originals could have done. Further, those who 
appreciated the worth of such works applauded the wisdom of the 
Librarian's action, while, had the rare books and manuscripts gone, 
Mich recklessness would certainly have called forth unfavorable com- 
ment from all competent critics. 

My opposition to putting on exhibition the so-called Museum of 
Ethnology had been less successful but through au appeal to those 
in charge it was possible to get the suppression of some of the more 
trashy parts. Objects which grouped and labeled would have been 
well enough in a collection became ridiculous when displayed alone 
in such a way that they had no scientific value, yet figured under a 
pretentious title. 

As a whole, the Islands were exceedingly well represented but it 
seemed to me that there was lacking all reference to what had been 
accomplished under the less favoring conditions of the past. Accord- 
ingly a summary of the most striking positions achieved by Filipinos 
under Spain was submitted but lack of funds was given as the reason 
for not having this displayed. Since my return, negatives, from my 
collection, of half a dozen of those notables of the old regime have 
been turned over to the Governor General's office and out of its 
funds enlarged portraits are being made to be exhibited during the 
balance of the exposition. One of the number is Lieutenant-General 
Marcelo de Azcarraga, a former prime minister of Spain whose death 
has recently occurred. 

The University, too, had only incidental mention in the Bureau 
of Education charts, though it crowns the educational work and is 
the part in which Filipino participation is most prominent. A list 
was prepared of the colleges where the members of the faculty were 
educated and another statement gave the number of members in each 
rank, both tables presenting these facts as to totals and for Filipinos. 
A brief historical sketch told of how an "University of the Philippines" 
was granted in answer to Filipino agitation by the Liberal Government 
of the regency only to have the fulfillment of the decree suspended 
in the reaction of '72; that this aspiration continued to animate the 
students educated abroad, appearing among the reforms asked by the 
Asociacion Hispano-Filipina in Spain during the later '80s; that it 
temporarily was realized in 1S98 by the students who, cut off from 
the university by the siege of Manila, continued their studies in the 
Asilo de Huerfanos building at Malabon under Doctors Pardo de Ta- 
vera and Leon Guerrero; and that finally it found full fruition in the 
present institution chartered by the first Philippine Assembly. For 
none of these were there funds; though a hundred pesos should cover 
the expense of suitable placards for impressing these important facts. 


A Philippine historical panorama was suggested as a part of 
the exhibit from here, but not adopted because of lack of time for 
its preparation. The idea, however, was vindicated by the Canadian 
exhibit, along the same line, and easily first at San Francisco. 

By beginning now it would be possible to work it out satis- 
factorily before the important anniversary which conies in less than 
six years. The method is to dress manikins in typical costume to 
represent the chief characters in notable events, and have painted 
backgrounds to complete the historic scenes. There is now time 
for ample discussion as to what to represent and how to go about 
its representation. Then on March 22, 1918, the anniversary of 
King Charles' signing the agreement with Magellan, each community 
might observe the day by presenting as a pageant some incident in 
Spain's first century in the Islands. On August 10th of the follow- 
ing year, four hundred years to the day from the fleet's sailing from 
Seville, the local pageants could be chosen from the second century 
of Spanish rule. In 1920, the day to be observed should be October 
21st, when the Straits of Magellan were discovered, and the events 
commemorated be of the third century of the Spanish regime. 
Finally, at eight o'clock on the morning of March 1st, 1921, Manila 
should open a 400-hour exposition with the historic panorama as 
above suggested, closing at midnight on October 16th, the 400th an- 
niversary of Magellan's first sight of Samar. Such an observonce 
would be unique, attract general attention and yet be inexpensive. 
During the coming year the students in the History Department will 
begin planning scenes from which selections may be made, and the 
School of Fine Arts could cooperate later in making sketches of them. 


The courses offered in the department have been gradually 
changing as material along new lines desired could be obtained. 
The policy is to use American courses as models, since these are 
worked out from the standpoint of the people, and then have the 
students make application to local conditions of the principles in- 
volved. Gradually, with increased knowledge of necessary points 
in Philippine history hitherto neglected, the instruction will be en- 
tirely localized till America will only be studied as a background 
for the understanding of the origins of democratic ways, much as 
England is now studied in America. The main object is character- 
building, not learning, and recitations and marks are subordinate 
to understanding and progress. 

This sort of history-teaching promises to develop initiative, and, 
though in American institutions confined to post-graduate work, 
their reason is probably because the field has been so well covered 
that opportunities for research are not abundant enough for general 
use. The complaint everywhere against university work in the past 
lias been that its routine and exaltation of mere book-learning de- 
veloped weaklings who were incapable of rising to emergencies or 

meeting new conditions. Athletics have been welcomed as bringing 
self-reliance, and industrial training is popular through a belief that 
it compels students to think for themselves. Now as there is a 
separate department of literature there seems no good reason why 
history should not be developed as a character-building subject. The 
one who writes his own history will be able to add valuable chapters 
to keep it up-to-date after he has left the academic halls, and, 
because he deduced for himself the lessons of the past, cannot so 
easily be deceived by those seeking to mislead in the lesson of thy 
day. Thus he will be safe in politics, the up-to-the-minute history 
which is the main object of history teaching, for there the knowledge 
becomes practical, since there only can it be ai^plied. 

What is here said of history is equally true of the allied subjects 
at present grouped with it in this department. Such grouping how- 
ever is only temporary and with the growth of the instruction they 
must be expanded into departments. Undoubtedly it was with this 
in mind your Board made political economy and anthropology titles 
of separate instructorships and in pursuance of this policy it is re- 
commended that Mr. L. H. Fernandez's present title become "instruc- 
tor in political science" as that is the branch in which he is special- 

Besides these three ultimate, even if somewhat distant, depart- 
ments of political economy, anthropology and political science, the 
remaining history proper naturally divides itself into Occidental 
and Oriental. The western history is in charge of Miss Neale. It 
is hoped to obtain a woman assistant for her as it is believed that 
the greater suitability of men for the lines more intimately connected 
with the economic and material growth of the country suggests that 
women be given the less active teaching work whose preparation only 
requires visiting libraries. 

The chief of the department retains Oriental, including Phil- 
ippine, history as the line of research work. This however has 
progressed far enough so printed topical outlines will be funished 
the student this year, and these will finally grow into text -books 
after sufficient criticism has been obtained. 

With the increased number of students and the development of 
the courses along the new plan has come need for a position which 
might be called Seminary Assistant. A very large number of papers 
have to be looked after, so that they are received at the due time 
and properly filed for future review and grading. Records must 
be kept. Only by watchfulness in seeing that the books are not 
monopolized by a few is it possible to use reference works to sup- 
plement or substitute textbooks, and some one must assume respon- 
sibility for them. Besides the student labor needs supervision. 
Finally in this way five instructors can be relieved of burdensom? 


details which hy centralization in a single person will not take half 
the time while that person's salary would he only a third of tho 
average salary of the others. 

Student assistance has heen working in the polyglot Philippine 
card dictionary but progress has been slow because of the little time 
available. It is hoped, as this student employment is a sort of 
scholarship, that up to one student for each of the eight principal 
languages may be authorized, thus hurrying on the dictionary to the 
point where it may be useful in a comparative study of Philippine 

The ultimate idea is to show the slight variation among Filipino 
words and the rules governing the changes. It would seem as 
though if each student left the University knowing Tagalog, Ilokano 
and one of the Bisayan languages it would be easy for him to quickly 
pick up any dialect he might encounter. There is a true saying, "to 
speak one's own language well is no credit ; not to know it is a 
disgrace." How many other languages the college man may know 
his influence will be greater if he is able to speak the home language 
of any community of his own land where he may be. 

A supplementary lecture course by persons who are authorities 
on local topics through having participated in them is also desirable. 
There are many perplexing matters in recent Philippine history which 
now can be frankly discussed. An honorarium should be allowed 
so that the topic may be fully treated and right of publication of 
the lectures given to the University. Delay in this will mean the 
loss of the opportunity in many cases. Outside lectures are also 
planned for the subjects allied to history included within this de- 


At Hanoi is a French Academy of Oriental languages where 
the early literature of China is being studied for references to French 
Indo- China. A prize of 1*200 for the best essay containing hitherto 
unpublished matter on the Philippines would doubtless interest in- 
vestigators. A similar offer of 1*100 should be made through the 
American consul at Amoy and 1*100 be allowed for the expense of 
making known the competition. Amoy is the part of China which 
has had most relation with the Philippines and its records date far 

The Library of Congress has a large number of early maps of 
this part of the world and photo-duplicates eighteen by twenty-two 
inches in size can be obtained of them at about two pesos each. 
One handled pesos spent for these copies would be well invested, 
I believe. 


Now that the complete course of instruction is given in the 
Philippines and students will be sent abroad only as postgraduates, 
it would seem timely to revise the college entrance requirements 
which still are what the necessity of preparing for American colleges 
made them. Especially does it seem to me desirable to drop the 
study of Colonial History there, since the lands of which it treats 
offer no parallel to the Philippines, though fortunately some are 
benefiting by our example. Less emphasis on European General 
History also would give opportunity for more attention to other 
branches of more value here. 

Copies of the circular sent out to interest teachers in the public 
schools are enclosed herewith. Later on these will be followed 
up by others. Already mention has been made of the intention to 
put out topical outlines for skeleton histories of the Philippines and 
the Orient, and in July the first issue will appear of the "Philippine 
Historj' and Political Science Quarterly." This publication is to 
cover all branches now included in the History Department and 
will be a substitute for the occasional pamphlets I have been in the 
habit of getting out. By saving in postage a wider distribution will 
be possible, though this has been, and will continue, a personal 

The teaching of history by the eye merits attention and his- 
torical friezes for University Hall corridors could give School of 
Fine Arts students training so that in time other public buildings 
might be suitably decorated. The history teaching for the public 
now provided in having holidays, naming streets, and setting up 
monuments thus would be rounded out. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Austin Craig, 

^Associate Professor of History 

and Chief of the Department 

of History, Economics 

and Sociology. 

University of the Philippines, 

Manila, May 24th, 1915. 



Blackwood's magazine for August, 1818, has an account of 
conditions in Manila and the Philippines from data given by an Eng- 
lish merchant who left the Islands in 1798 after twenty years' re- 
sidence in which he accumulated a fortune. 

"Your first question, with respect to the Spanish population, 
must refer to native Spaniards only; as their numerous descendants, 
through all the variety of half-castes, would include one third at 
least of the whole population of Luconia (i. e., Luzon-^-A. C.) 

"Of native Spaniards, accordingly, settled in the Philippine 
'Islands, the total number may he stated at 2,000 not military. The 
military, including all descriptions, men and officers, are about 2,500, 
out of which number the native regiments are officered. These last, 
in 179G-7, were almost entirely composed of South Americans and 
were reckoned at 5000 men, making a military force of about 7,500. 

"The casts bearing a mixture of the Spanish blood are in Lu- 
conia alone at least 200,000. The Sangleys, or Chinese descendants, 
are upwards of 20,000, and Indians, who call themselves the original 
Tagalas, about 340,000, making a total population in that island of 
about 600,000 souls. What may be the respective numbers in the 
other Philippine Islands I never had any opportunity of learning." 

This opinion, of a day when it was not desired to disparage the 
people, gives an idea of the mixed condition of the Filipinos which, 
in the opinion of the ethnologists, like Ratzel, is a source of strength. 
It classes them with the English and Americans. One danger of the 
j tresent is over-emphasizing the Malay blood, just as I believe in 
Spanish times a real loss came from the contempt toward the Chinese 
which led to minimizing and concealing a most creditable ancestry. 

A prejudice of the past made all trouble makers mestizos, but 
today when we are learning that trouble maker meant mem who would 
stand up for his riyhls we should not forget that mestizo was used as 
a reproach, that the leaders of the people were really typical of the 
people. By the old injustice those who were mediocre were called 
natives and whoever rose above his fellows was claimed as a Spaniard, 
lint a fairer way would seem to be to consider Filipinos all born in 
the Philippines. 

It has been suggested, and it seems to me plausible, that the con- 
siderable proportion of those of apparently partial-European descent 
which the merchant mentions was due l<> his mistaking for Spanish 


mestizos many whose Caucasian features were due to a Caucasian 
strain existing in the Islands before ever Magellan came. 

The Comhill magazine some sixty years later than the Blackwood 
article (nearly forty years ago) had a contribution by the then Bri- 
tish Consul, Mr. Palgreave, on "Malay Life in the Philippines," that 
makes more understandable the reputation of the islands, which be- 
fore the opening of the Suez were a health resort for Japan, the 
China coast and India. It also shows a fairness to the people un- 
common in the Spanish-inspired writings of his day. 

"Dull indeed must be his soul, unsympathetic his nature who can 
see the forests and mountains of Luzon, Queen of the Eastern Isles, 
fade away into dim violet outlines on the fast receding horizon with- 
out some pang of longing regret. Not the Aegean, not the West In- 
dian, not the Samoan, not any rival in manifold beauties of earth, 
sea and sky the Philippine Archipelago. Pity that for the Philippines 
no word limner of note exists. The chiefest, the almost exceptional 
spell of the Philippines, is situated, not in the lake or volcano, forest 
or plain, but in the races that form the bulk of the island population. 

"I said 'almost exceptional' because rarely is an intra-tropical 
people a satisfactory one to eye or mind. But this cannot be said 
of the Philippine Malays who in bodily formation and mental char- 
acteristics alike, may fairly claim a place, not among middling ones 
merely, but among almost the higher names inscribed on the world's 
national scale. A concentrated, never-absent self-respect, an habitual 
self-restraint in word and deed, very rarely broken except when ex- 
treme provocation induces the transitory but fatal frenzy known as 
'amok,' and an inbred courtesy, equally diffused through all classes, 
high or low, unfailing decorum, prudence, caution, quiet cheerfulness, 
ready hospitality and a correct, though not inventive taste. His fa- 
mily is a pleasing sight, much subordination and little constraint, unison 
in gradation, liberty — not license. Orderly children, respected parents, 
women subject but not oppressed, men ruling but not despotic, re- 
verence with kindness, obedience in affection, these form lovable pic- 
tures, not by any means rare in the villages of the eastern isles." 
Here again comes the necessity of combatting the popular impres- 
sion that the Philippines is a tropical land peopled by Malays. The 
modification of climate from being an ocean archipelago suggests that 
these islands are really subtropical, while mixture of blood joined with 
three centuries of European civilization makes the term Malay mis- 

It may well be that the modern tourist system is responsible for 
the less favorable impression made today upon visitors here. They 
come to be amused, looking for what is strange and different. Eu- 
ripe has ancient ruins and historic memories, Asia idols, temples and 


customs reversed from the Occident. But in the Philippines the globe- 
trotter looks in vain for either and is disappointed. 

The remedy would seem to be developing what is characteristic 
of the country. Ours is a land of sunny skies but Barcelona as well 
as Honolulu features that side more than does Manila. The Spaniards 
built cumbrously of Roman cement, the post-Spanish era has turned 
to concrete. Both are more fitted than the native nipa and bamboo 
to withstand earthquakes and typhoons, but neither has been deco- 
rated in the gay colors usually associated with southern countries. 
Yet how easy and effective is such an embellishment the rainbow-like 
city of the San Francisco exposition is proving. A capitol group 
patterned after buildings there would not represent the prohibitive 
expenditure of the repellant Greek effect now planned for the Luneta 
nor seem so foreign to its surroundings. 

Along with distinctive architecture goes development of local 
history and the marking of important spots. Here the History De- 
partment has been trying to make itself useful. Three or four really 
creditable provincial histories have been podueed and the others 
are being studied so that eventually not only all the provinces but 
the towns as well will be known. Then the visitor can learn from 
any school child whatever of interest has happened in the locality 
where he is stopping. 

The University History Club, having marked Rizal's cell in Fort 
Santiago, plans to put a memorial on the site where he was born. 
Should the Bridge of Spain be removed or replaced, effort will be 
made to get some of the stones from the earliest foundations piled 
in the form of the castle in the coat-of-arms at the city-end, near 
where the old Bastion of San Gabriel stood, for Castile is the part of 
Spain most deserving of grateful recollection in the Philippines. 
Inexpensive but appropriate memorials of this character if suffi- 
ciently multiplied throughout the islands where the original land- 
marks are gone, and historic buildings or ruins, where these exist, 
marked, together with a knowledge of legends and local history 
general throughout the Islands would give to the Archipelago a ro- 
mantic attraction for tourists which would make effective the ad- 
vertising which now goes to waste because disappointed tourists 
more than counterbalance it. 


A Chinese account by Luchow of Fukien (Amoy) although com- 
paratively recent (1724) gives an interesting view of the Philippines. 

"All the inhabitants of the Southern Archipelago are harmless; 
every prohibition, therefore, ought to be removed and our people 
ullowed free trade with (them) 



, , . . Of the numerous tribes inhabiting 1 tlie Southern Arcln- 
pelago, those of Lueonia and Java are the most powerful .... On 
tlie west are the Europeans, a very strong and ferocious people with 
whom no foreigners are comparable. "Europeans" is the general 
appellation of all the inhabitants of the western islands and among 
them the English, the Spanish, the French, the Hollanders, the Por- 
tuguese (both iu Europe and at Goa) are the most cruel and fero- 
cious. They have strong ships and do not fear the furious winds. 
Their guns and other weapons are superior to those of our country. 
In their dispositions, too, they are artful and subtle; they spy out 
every new place and form designs of acquiring territory. 

The Europeans, the Roman Catholics and the Japanese are more 
to be dreaded than any other foreigners. Java originally belonged 
to the Malays but the Europeans, having opened a trade, these got 
possession of the country and hence it became rendezvous for their 
ships. Lueonia also originally belonged to the Malays, but the Roman 
Catholics having introduced their religion, took possession of the 
country, and it became the emporium of their ships." 


Tlie Chinese Repository, of Canton, for May, 1838, gives a 
forecast of American policy in this part of the world which recent 
years has abundantly justified. The author was probably Rev. E. C. 
Bridgman and the complete article, which was copied in full and from 
which the following excerpts are taken, tills sixty-two long typewritten 

"When we look beyond the national influences in actual operation 
around us, and fix our eyes on great agencies, still slumbering, but 
about to be aroused into action, the waking moment and the exhibi- 
tions of might that are to follow it, excite us to speculation of the 
most attractive character. Such interest we venture to attach to 
the subject of this paper — the prospective influence of the people and 
government of the United States on the countries beyond the Malayan 

"In the very act of presenting this subject to our readers, we 
have a prejudice to obviate. It is this — that nothing generous, phi- 
lanthropic, chivalrous, can ever be expected to emanate from the 
great republic beyond the Atlantic. The Americans, it is said, are 
not fond of long-armed, doubtful, quixotic enterprises; they are too 
shrewd, too calculating. True; they prefer, as a nation, productive 
enterprises; but no less true is it, that the negotiations of the United 
States, from the first-celebrated treaty with France down to the pres- 
ent day, have been characterized by a noble spirit of 'independence, 
ifqual favors, and reciprocity ;' in the happiest contrast to the parti- 
tioning, favor-seeking, advantage-taking diplomacy of Europe. 


.... This prejudice lies, we believe, against the Americans in 
their national capacity only, so that the sneer at the government is 
all we have to repudiate. Their personal enterprise, often pushed 
beyond the bounds of prudence, has never left the Eastern Seas 
without a flag, since the close of the War of Independence. Its 
activity and power, we need not vindicate. For the last eight years 
their benevolent representatives too, have been constantly at work 
in the East, striving to diffuse those principles and that spirit, which 
lie at the basis of national concord and generous intercourse. 

.... No good reason can therefore be assigned, why the in- 
fluence of the United States — their political, commercial, and bene- 
volent agency, — should not be made to bear, powerfully and happily, 
on the destinies of Eastern Asia 

"The American intercourse with the East having commenced with 
1784, all national responsibility for any acts done by foreign hands, 
prior to that date, can be rightly shaken off. As a new people, 
the historical argument is for them less complicated and less unfavor- 
able; there are fewer injurious precedents to be arrayed against 
them; and less danger that ancient grievances, alliances, etc., will be 
openly set off, or will secretly operate against all demands for free 
and honorable intercourse 

.... The United States are and have always been principled 
against foreign colonization, and their claims on the confidence of 
the Asiatic nations, as compared with those of any other maritime 
power, are of the purest and highest character 

" . . . . The purely civil constitution of the United States — 
the entire separation of church and state, — is an important advant- 
age, now that any near intercourse must involve some interchange 
of ideas between man and man, — some converse on moral and reli- 
gious topics. This complete separation relieves the American Gov- 
ernment from all suspicion of interest in the overthrow of one ec- 
clesiastical policy and the setting up of another. At the same time it 
saves philanthropists from all implication in design of aggression 
or plots against the state .... 

"To these political advantages, we must add the mixed one, that 
the American soil produces no noxious growth, no deadly drug, to 
tempt the merchant away from his legitimate employ in beneficial 

.... The benevolent resources of the United States are not 
mortgaged to a mass of colonial fellow-subjects, whose claims are 
of prior date and validity to all others; and which being recognized, 
must needs draw away those means of influence, otherwise assignable 
to the 450,000,000 of Eastern Asia 

.... The American representative will bear in mind, that 
independent self-government is the nil e of rigid, and colonial de- 


pendence the forced 1 and unnatural exception. When therefore force 1 
and fraud have failed to subjugate an independent people, and an 
emergency arises, precluding reference and calling for immediate 
choice between the aggressor and the defendant, he will prefer to re- 
spect the rights which nature and reason have conferred, and which 
violence has not been able to annihilate. .... 

.... In the colonial territories he will also bear in mind, 
that the breaking up of all such unnatural ties must sooner or later 
occur. .... 

.... Wherever the Archipelago still presents independent 
openings, he will feel a deep solicitude that aggression on such un- 
subjugated communities should be checked at last, and that their soil 
should become, under the guardianship of the United States, nurse- 
ries of civil and religious liberty 

, . , . While extending the diplomatic code of the United 
States, tilling his portfolio with new treaties of trade and naviga- 
tion, he will employ all his opportunities to impart knowledge, and 
especially an acquaintance with those improvements, to which his own 
country owes so much of its prosperity 

.... In all his negotiations, with Eastern Powers, the duty 
of the consul-general will never be interpreted to require him to 
seek exclusive favors. On the contrary, though acting under the 
commission and in behalf of a single state, be will never decline — 
never fail — to embody in every treaty those noble clauses, out of 
the celebrated convention with France, — which, 'carefully avoiding all 
burdensome preferences,' and 'founding the advantage of commerce 
solely on reciprocal utility, and the just rules of free intercourse,' 
'reserve to each party, the liberty of admitting, at its pleasure, other 
nations to a participation in the same advantages.' This generous 
spirit, which breathes in the first treaty of the United States, and 
has since animated the whole body of American diplomacy, will, 
we trust, be exhibited in many a compact — in every compact — made 
under their name in Ultra-Malayan Asia. As respects China par- 
ticularly, it will induce the American negotiator to choose a new 
path, to avoid ex parte statement, the presentation of lofty claims, 
and the harping on petty grievances. On the contrary, he will pre- 
sent at once the whole basis of the mutual arrangement, taking what 
the United States are ready to grant as the standard of what they 
require, keeping above all selfish and unfair stipulations, and making 
the mutual interest, the equal benefit, everywhere apparent. Nego- 
tiations so conducted, cannot fail to make a due impression, sooner 
or later, on a government always anxious to have equity on its side, 
and constantly appealing to the principles of justice, in all its public 


'"Remembering that the benefits of free arid rapid intercommuni- 
cation — domestic and foreign — have outrun all previous conception, 
the consul-general will take every proper opportunity to point out to 
Eastern princes and their ministers, the 'viability 7 of their states; and 
thus to hasten the era, when the countries washed by the Chinese Sea 
shall share in the incalculable advantages note realized on the Amer- 
ican shores 

.... To take by force is robbery; to sell the means of ruin 
is perhaps criminal; nor is it right to compel the acceptance even 
<of things useful. The claim to protection cannot belong to acts like 
these; it is due only to tbe fair, voluntary gift, sale or purchase of 
things good and useful. But in practice, the tiling given may be 
'honestly regarded by a foreign government as an evil and not a good; 
in which case, the same rule applies as to the sale of articles made 
contraband, for a like reason. In either case, if the foreign minister 
believe that the prohibition is in fact founded in error and ignorance, 
he will feel it a sacred duty to press full and timely explanations on 
tbe proper authorities. But if all this be done, and done in vain, the 
missionary like the merchant must be admitted to act at bis own 

.... Wbcn health, or business, or any other duty, call the 
American merchant home (and it is seldom his interest to stay abroad 
more than three or four years together) he will carry with him a 
constant regard to the objects he lias left behind him. To appear 
for them — their advocate and defender — to carry their claims to his 
friends and fellow citizens, will brighten the joys of home and keep 
alive his usefulness. While thus employed, instead of bearing about— 
"The self-convicted bosom, that hath wrought, 

The bane of others 1 ' 

be will rejoice in the recollection, that it has been his pleasure .... 
to employ himself about the lower stories of that fabric, which rests 
on liberty as its foundation, (and) which rises through all the as- 
cending forms of civilization and refinement." 


About 425-375 B. C, the trade from the Erythraean Sea (Indian- 
Ocean) to the eastern coasts of China (Shantung, Tcheh-Kiang) 
passed to Indian sailors who no longer sailed through the Malacca 
straits but went by the south of Sumatra and Java. 140 B. C. is 
the date given for the earliest arrival in South China, possibly at 
Hoppu, of Arabian merchants (Tats' in, or Tarshish). Their rout: 1 
was south of Sumatra, Java and the Sunda Islands, near Timor. In 
139 B. C, the Amoy Chinese (Fub Kien, the then semi-chinese state 
of Min-yueh) built the first sea-going vessels in China, in imitation, 
of the Erythraean ships. 


These facts would suggest that material bearing upon early Phil- 
ippine history may yet be discovered in Indian records, while the 
Amoy records perhaps have earlier mentions than that of the third 

Dr. von Moellendorf, an expert sinologist and formerly German 
consul, informed Mr. Karuth that he had in his possession a Chinese 
book, dating from about the third century A. D. in which a trading 
voyage from Amoy to Manila is described. Gold is mentioned as the 
chief product of Luzon, and names occur which are still recognizable 
in the present nomenclature of Luzon. 

This German gentleman appears to be now living in Munich. 
An effort is being made to get a fuller reference from him, through 
an inquiry going through government channels to the German em- 

In I-Tsing's Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practiced in 
India and the Malay Archipelago (A. D. 671-695) Korea is mentioned 
as the land where people honor cocks, India is the country where 
elephants are respected and the islands of the Southern Sea become 
the "Gold-neighbors" (Chin-lin). The name "Golden Island (Chin 
Chou) is given by an annotator (Dr. Takakusu) as Sumatra because 
it fulfills the requirements of having Malay spoken and producing 
gold, but Luzon equally meets these conditions. 

Dr. Lacouperie in his "Origin of the Early Chinese Civilization" 
uses for Malay lands the term "Heh-tehi" or black teeth country, 
that is, "artificially blackened." The teeth of Japanese married wo- 
men may possibly have been in remembrance of Malay ancestry or 
rather the like custom found in lands of the Malay Peninsula may 
have had its origin in imitating the results of betel-nut chewing. 

Ma Tuanlin's 2000 states lying beyond the sea of Kwei-ki, that is, 
Tchehkiang, are reduced by Dr. Lacouperie to twenty, classed as the 
Tong-ti-jen, or Philippine Islands and neighbors. 

The name Manila is usually given as meaning "where there are 
nilad lillies," but the same authorities that offer this explanation also 
tell the story of Luzon being lasong, a rice mortar, because people 
thus engaged in answering a query as to the name of the island thought 
it was the mortar's name that was required. Liu-sin, the Chinese 
name, may have a better explanation, and Manila, is expressed exactly 
in three old Tagalog characters for which there is a Sanscrit meaning 
fitting the modern sobriquet of Pearl of the Orient. Mani, the name 
of the finest of pearls, means in Sanscrit "Blight and shining" (much 
the same as the Chinese loong known here as the name of a Hongkong 
steamer) and la is kingdom, so the whole might be translated "Sun- 
shine land" or "Spotless town." Mai would be only a Chinese mis- 
pronunciation of Mani, the word for country being left off, and 
Bayi or Bay is of course the Amoy variation in pronunciation. 


Megasthenes was possibly the first to give Europeans any knowl- 
edge of the island group to which the Philippines belong. He was 
in the service of the Syrian king Seleucus Nicanor and in an ac- 
count of India beyond the Ganges mentions imports of cinnamon and 
other spices, suggesting the existence even at that remote period of 
the spice trade that led to their re-discovery, nearly 1800 years later. 

Pomponius Mela (e. A. D. 43) writes of Tabis as the eastern- 
most point of Asia. Apparently to the south of it was Taruus, off 
which lay Chryse, the Golden Isle, commonly supposed to be mythical 
but there is some possibility of its having been the Chinese Island 
of Gold, our Luzon. Argyre, the Island of Silver, was nearer the 
mouth of the Ganges and so would lit Perak (silver, Tagalog pilak) 
in the Malay Peninsula. 

About this time comes the world's greatest navigator, Hippalus, 
who was the first to sail out across the open .sea. From the position of 
the ports and the shape of the sea he had arrived at the conclusion 
that to sail with the monsoon would give the same result as hugging the 
coast, and in memory of his success the southwest monsoon came to 
bear his name. 

The author of the ancient guide to the Indian Ocean, or "Peri- 
plus of the Erytrhaean Sea, seems to think the Golden Island was 
south of China as well as east of the Ganges and he mentions that 
its tortoise-shell excelled. The saijlor Alexander, a century later, 
passed the Malay Peninsula and seems to have reached Borneo en 
route to some city of southern China. If the Javan Kings' Book 
legends are true it had been necessary to make a detour around Java 
and Sumatra because these were then still attached to the mainland. 

The travellers whose wanderings in this part of the world are 
recorded and today are available are besides the Venetian Marco 
Polo, the Franciscan Friar Odoric, the Arab Ibn Batuta, and Friar 
John de Marignolli, who came about 1338. 

The earliest European visitor to the Moluccas and the North of 
Borneo, which would mean the Philippines practically, is given by Sir 
Hugh Clifford in "Further India" as the Italian wanderer Ludovico 
di Varthena. He visited Burma later, before 1496. 


A report of 1775 by the University of Mexico says, translated: 
"Nevertheless this limited number of graduates has given their great 
Alma M;>tler fit subjects for all the dignities and employees for all 
I he ecclesiastical and secular tribunals of these realms and the adja- 
cent islands, and of the Philippines, too, and even some for Europe. 

"There have been graduated here 84 archbishops and bishops, of 
whom three have been natives, and many eminent wearers of the legal 


toga in the Royal Audieneias of Mexico, Guadalaxara, Guatemala, 
Sto. Domingo and Manila." 


F. Karuth, "F. R. G. S." who was president of an English cor- 
poration interested in Philippine mining, about 1894, wrote in a 
sort of prospectus, 

"Few outside the comparatively narrow circle who are di- 
rectly interested in the commerce and resources of the Philip- 
pine Islands know anything about them. The Philippine mer- 
chants are a rather close., community which only in the last decade 
or so has expanded its diameter a little. There are a number 
of very old established firms amongst them, several of them 
being British .... Amongst them also are firms — perhaps as 
far as wealth and local influence go, the most important firms — 
irhose chiefs are partly at least of native blood. 





— Yrs. Philippine Political Eruptions * „ 

, r «- 



a A A Li. 




The sketch shows practically continuous political unrest in the 
Philippines throughout the Spanish domination. It is the intensive 
study of this discontent that promises the most valuable addition 
to Philippine history. Documented contributions such as have been 
made by Mr. Manuel Artigas on the events of 1872 are needed for 
a dozen other as notable, but less known, uprisings, and each of 
the other three centuries of Spanish rule should have the same 
illuminating treatment that Mr. Mariano Ponce has given to the 
XIX century. 


(Proposed placard for the S. F. Exposition.) 


on'ce the hope of an oppressed people now the pride of a free peoplk 

An Oriental Center of Learning Which is Trying to Do for the Farthest- 
East What Has Been Done For Europe and America By Their Universities 






(Proposed placard for the S. F. Exposition.) 

Before 1898, Filipinos had been 

Prime Minister of Spain 
Governor-General of the Philippines 
Generals and Colonels in the Spanish Army 
Bishops in the Roman Catholic Church 
Presidents and Professors of Colleges 
Members of European Learned Socikties 
Authors of Hundreds of Books 
Artists Honored in Europe 
Lawyers, Bankers and Physicians Abroad 

Students in the United States, Hongkong, India, Japan, England, France, Germany, 

Belgium, Holland, Italy and Spain 

A Filipino Woman developed the Islands' First Coal Mines. Manila's First 
Street Railway was a Filipino Enterprise. The First Private Steamer in the 
Islands was Filipino-owned. 

To her own sons, the Philippines owes her knowledge of Her Medicinal Plants 
and Her Geology. 

Nearly One Thousand Years Ago (A. D. 982), Manila Merchants were selling 
their manufactures in Canton, China. 

The Philippines Became Spanish Through Columbus' Discovery 
California Was First Known as On the Route to the Philippines 
The Islands were, till its end, under the Spanish Government of Mexico. 
January 1, 1845, the Islands changed from American Time to Asian 

Manila-men were the quartermasters of the American Sailing Ships when the 
United States was the largest factor in Far East trade. 

500 Manila-men as the bodyguard of the American "General," Frederick Town- 
send Ward, fighting around Shanghai in 1860-1862, helped China's "Ever-Victo- 
rious" Army win its deserved name. 

A Century Ago Filipinos were talking of an American Form of Government. 
50 Years Ago a German Geographer Predicted its Early Arrival. In 1S97 Fili- 
pinos Asked For It. 

In 1872 executions and banishments stopped the liberal progress and, under 
military rule, development was arrested until 1898. 




Second Semester, 1914-1915. 

Prof. A. Craig: 

History VIII (and Mr. H. 0. Beyer) SO 

History V (and Mr. C. Benitez) 117 

History 14 23 

Teachers' Course in History 17 

• 237 

Mr. C. Benitez: 

Economics 2 35 

History 2 63 

■ 98 

Mr. H. 0. Beyer: 

Anthropology 1 34 

Sociology 1 45 


Mr. L. H. Fernandez : 

History 13 H 

History 3 60 

History 1c H 



Total 499 



RETURN TO the circulation desk of any 
University of California Library 
or to the 
Bldg. 400, Richmond Field Station 
University of California 
Richmond, CA 94804-4698 


2-month loans may be renewed by calling 

(510)642-6753 . . 

1-year loans may be recharged by bringing books 

to NRLF . , 

Renewals and recharges may be made 4 days 

prior to due date 


■SEP 1 1 1996 

-JUN 1 6 2007